An Analysis of the Poetic Structure of Reem Qais Kobeh Based on Jeffrey Leach's Theory (A Case Study of Semantic and Written Norm-breaking)

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


Ph.D student in Arabic Literature, Bushehr Persian Gulf University



With the emergence of various theories in the field of literary research, researchers have analyzed the literature from various aspects. Researchers have made different theories tangible and objective through the application of such theories and their adaptation to different texts tangible and objective. Among these theories is a norm-breaking that has been proposed in the school of formalism. In the view of the followers of the school of formalism, norm-breaking is considered a definition of style, insofar as the high frequency of norm-breaking in the poems of a poet or writer introduces the style of that poet or writer. Jeffrey Leach is one of the most prominent English characters who has divided norm-breaking into eight groups.In this research, we used a descriptive-analytical method to analyze the structure of Reem Qais Kobe's poetry based on Jeffrey Leach's theory, and in this regard, we focused on semantic and written norm-breaking, which are the most frequent types in the poet's poetry. The approach obtained from this analysis indicates that the semantic norm-breaking in the poem of Rim has been created mostly through coexistence and substitution, and in a few cases it has been achieved through the science of expression or forms of imagination. The norm-breaking writing in his poetry is also in cases such as: separating the letters of the words, writing step by step and vertically the lines of the poem.


Volume 10, Issue 21 - Serial Number 21
December 2020
Pages 211-239
  • Receive Date: 13 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 03 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 28 December 2021
  • First Publish Date: 28 December 2021