Discussing The Role of Code, theorized by Daniel Chandler, In Creating Extraordinary Meanings in the works of Sa’adi Yusof (Specifically, “The Last Hour” divan)

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 PhD Candidate in Arabic Language & Literature, Kharazmi University, Tehran

2 Associate Professor in Arabic Language & Literature, Kharazmi University, Tehran

3 Assistant Professor in Arabic Language & Literature, Kharazmi University, Tehran



Daniel Chandler believes that any interpreter of a text or who that intends to study any form of literary works shall gather three kinds of knowledge beforehand: Social knowledge, Textual knowledge & Modality judgements by which the textual signs of the first two knowledges can be discovered and studied. He also indicates that the more a literary work consists of said elements, the stronger it will be able to represent its meanings which cannot be discovered without deciphering. This note intends to apply Chandler’s theory, which is named as the ‘Knowledge Theory’ by this paper’s author, on the poems of Sa’adi Yusof’s to indicate how intentionally he has put hidden meanings behind familiar words to recite poems that can be deciphered to reveal new aspects. Not only has he created extraordinary meanings in his literary works but he also has played the role of a cultural or civilized critic who can magnify all of the social issues that people are struggling with. In order to achieve this goal, he often has chosen the words that are completely compatible with the meanings that he has intended to hide to let the audience find for themselves and therefore enjoy it more. Words and their placement in statements are the major means that Yusof has put his hands on to be able to represent his criticism in a way that not only does not offend the audience but it also gives them a chance to stand up to what that has been proven to be faulty. Literally code has played a major role in Sa’adi Yusof’s poems as he has utilized many forms of it to create meanings that are beyond what actual words speak of. Such meanings can only be found when a talented literary researcher dives deep into texts to reveal its neglected aspects.


Volume 12, Issue 24
September 2022
Pages 297-334
  • Receive Date: 26 February 2022
  • Revise Date: 10 September 2022
  • Accept Date: 25 October 2022
  • First Publish Date: 25 October 2022